Municipal Solid Waste Management
Rapid urbanization has led to over-stressing of urban infrastructure services including Municipal Solid Waste Management because of poor resources and inadequacies of the existing waste management systems. Therefore, operating, augmenting,and maintaining solid waste management system in a sustainable manner by urban local bodies would require huge capital investment, introduction of latest technologies which are cost effective, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in Solid waste management and introduction of appropriate waste management practices in order to prevent urban waste from causing environmental pollution and health hazards.
Waste Management Practices
Per capita waste generation varies between 0.2 Kg to 0.6 Kg per day in cities with population ranging from 1 lakh to 50 lakh. An assessment has been made that because of increasing per capita waste generation of about 1.3% per year in India, and growth of urban population between 3% and 3.5% per annum, yearly increase in the overall quantity of solid waste in the cities is about 5 percent. Waste collection efficiency ranges from 50 percent to 90 percent. Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) spend between Rs 500/- to Rs 1500/- per ton on solid waste management, of which 60 percent to 70 percent is spent on collection alone, 20 percent to 30 percent on transportation and less than 5 percent on treatment and waste disposal in India which is very essential to prevent environmental pollution. Crude dumping is normally resorted to by ULBs without adopting the scientific and hygienic approach of sanitary landfilling.
Problem of Urban solid waste management is notable not only because of large quantities involved, but also its spatial spread across 5161 cities and towns and enormity and variety of problems involved in setting up and managing systems for waste collection, waste transportation and waste disposal.
Quantity & Characteristics of Indian Municipal Solid Waste Management Urban India produces about 42 million tons of municipal solid waste annually 1.15 lakh metric tons per day(TPD), out of which 83,378 TPD is generated in 423 Class-I cities. Waste generated in 423 Class-I cities works out to 72.5 percent of the total waste generated each day and this needs to be tackled on priority. Municipal solid waste comprises 30 percent to 55 percent of biodegradable (organic) matter, 40 percent to 55 percent inert matter and 5 percent to 15 percent recyclables. Composition of waste varies with size of city, season and income group.
Modern Solution of Waste Management
Maintain a composting bin for sustainable composting process to reduce the waste dump we can produce compost through our garden waste is turned into a nutritious soil conditioner which increases the nutrients and improves a soil's structure to help plants grow up for these try to use Sadabahar composter vertical garden planter tower will help the best feature of it is self fertilizing with inbuilt composter attached with planter that is available at Urban plants.