Composting is a well-established and widely accepted approach that involves the decomposition and transformation of organic biomass waste under the action of several microorganisms into humus-like material that has the ability to fertilize crops . The conversion of organic composting matter is carried out either in the presence of oxygen (aerobic composting) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic digestion).
In cold hilly regions like Himalaya, the temperature is one of the main parameters that define the overall composting process. The presence of cold ambient conditions reduces the thermophilic phase and lengthens the mesophilic phase, ultimately resulting in low compost quality. To overcome such problems, the addition of cold-tolerant microbial consortia with efficient hydrolytic activities have been reported to break down complex organic waste into nutrient-rich compost that can be utilized as fertilizer. Cold-tolerant bacteria with potential hydrolytic activities such as protease, lipase, pectinase, cellulase, amylase, and xylanase have been reported from IHR. However, reports on utilizing such bacterial consortia for organic waste management in IHR are scarce. Few reports on improved organic waste degradation and plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance composting material quality from IHR are available. In mountain regions like the Himalayas, the issue of efficient composting using scientific interventions is less studied and needs special attention.
Due to the increase in waste production from Urban areas and energy consumption by human activities across IHR, anaerobic digestion (AD) technology can be the other alternate practice utilized for organic waste management. AD converts organic waste by acidogenic fermentation, hydrolysis, hydrogen-producing acetogenesis, and methanogenesis to bio-energy (biogas) that can be transformed into electric energy and heat energy. The biogas recovery promotes sustainable practices bringing out improving sanitation, cost-effective and social benefits by reducing greenhouse gases, and indoor air pollution.
Composting needs a proper temperature. In a cool area it get difficult to make compost. At this moment you can utilize Sadabahar composter vertical garden planter tower. The best feature of it is self fertilizing with an inbuilt composter attached with planter that is available at Urban plants.