When garden waste is deposited in a pit, covered and then maintained warm and wet, worms and microbes from the surrounding soil quickly migrate into it and start consuming the waste, starting the decomposing process. There are many types of microorganisms found in the active composting process.
Prominent among them are:
Bacteria: Most commonly, thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria. Mesophilic bacteria are the bacteria that grow best in moderate temperatures, typically between 20 and 45 °C. In contrast, thermophilic bacteria thrive at relatively high temperatures, between 50 to 70 °C. They get into action in different phases of the composting process.
Actinobacteria: Bacteria necessary for breaking down tree bark related compounds.
Fungi: Yeast and Molds help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material.
Protozoa: These single-celled microscopic organisms consume bacteria, micro organic and fungi particulates, thus keeping the bacterial population in check.
Rotifers: These help control the populations of both small protozoans and bacteria.
Earthworms: They consume partly-decomposed organic composting material. Their excreta add nutrition and value to compostable material.
What organic materials to use, in what ratios?
The composting microbes need four ingredients to multiply and work effectively:
Carbon (C): The carbon in dry leaves is oxidised by microbes to produce heat, which is essential for the composting process.
Nitrogen (N): The nitrogen in leaves helps microbes grow and reproduce.
Oxygen (O): Essential for oxidizing the carbon in leaves
Water: In the right amounts, it maintains aerobic activity.
When present in certain ratios, these ingredients facilitate microorganisms working at a rate that would heat up the material in reasonable time, meanwhile the composting process. The most efficient composting occurs at the C:N ratio of 25:1. When the C:N ratio is 30:1 or less, the composting process is rapid.
Prominent component use in the perfect compost bin for sustainable waste management makes it more effective. I recommend a composter which is inbuilted to a vertical garden tower which works in an efficient way with space saving and movable features. In addition to composting you can grow 55 units of plants at a single place. This special tower is available in Urban plants.